Top 10 Physical features of the Earth

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Physical features of the Earth? The earth’s surface consists of both land and water. The land area of the earth has a number of features, such as hills, mountains, desert, and plateaus.

Any part of the Earth’s surface that is covered with water is known as water body, such as ocean, sea, river and lake. These land forms and water bodies together form the physical features of the earth.

Table Of Content: Top 10 Physical features of the Earth

  1. Hills
  2. Mountains
  3. Valley
  4. Deserts
  5. Plains
  6. Plateaus
  7. Canyon
  8. Cliff
  9. Swamp
  10. Fjords


Hills are the raised piece of land, often with a rounded peak at the top.

They are not usually very high and have a gentle slope. Generally hills are less than 600 meters.


Mountains are also raised flat land and it is taller than hill. They have pointed peaks and are covered with snow at the top. When numbers of mountains are joined together, they are known as mountain range.


Valley is low flat land between hills or mountains. A valley often has a river flowing through it. The climate is also pleasant in a valley. When numbers of mountains are joined together, they are called valley range.


Desert is a dry land which receives lass or no rainfall throughout the year. There are almost no or very few plants in a desert. Desserts are two types: cold desert and hot desert. These Cold desert are covered with snow throughout or most part of the year. Hot deserts are covered with sand and have a hot climate.


Plains are low flat land. The soil in the plains is usually fertile, which is good for the growth of the plants.


Plateaus are raised flat land. They have a steep slope and are flat from top. The structure of a plateaus looks like a table and therefore, they are also known as tableland.


It is a big crack in the ground, or a very deep valley. The Most canyons are made by rivers. Canyon can be formed by erosion by running water which will take rocks and soil away. Few canyons are made by the earthquake also.


A very steep, vertical, or overhanging face of rock, earth, or ice. A cliff is a mass of rock that rises very high and is almost vertical or straight up and down. They are formed near the ocean, high in mountains, or walls of canyons and valleys. Waterfall tumble over cliffs.


A swamp is a forested wetland. These Swamps are forested, low, spongy land generally saturated with water and covered with trees and aquatic plants.  They are considered to be transition zones because both land and water play in a role in creating this environment.


A Fjord is a deep, long and narrow and elongated sea or lake drain, with deep land on three sides. The opening toward the sea is called mouth of the fjord.

With the physical features our earth has water features also. These Water bodies are areas covered with water. They can be as big as an ocean and as small as a pond. These Rivers and streams are also called water bodies. A pond is a small fresh water body and pond is a small fresh water body and is surrounded by land on all sides. Lakes are bigger than ponds. Lakes can have either fresh water or salty water. Seas and oceans are very big water bodies and have salt water in them. Rivers have fresh water. Streams are narrower than rivers.

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Top 10 Physical features of the Earth